JavaScript Strict Mode

The strict context prevents some actions and throws more exceptions. Strict mode changes previously accepted "bad syntax" into errors. Strict mode will for example prevent using undeclared variables. The "use strict" directive was new in ECMAScript version 5.


Strict Mode Benifits

Strict mode makes many changes to normal JavaScript semantics.

  • Strict mode eliminates JavaScript silent errors instead throw errors.
  • Strict mode prohibits some syntax likely to be defined in future versions of ECMAScript.
  • It prevents, or throws errors, when relatively “unsafe” actions are taken (such as gaining access to the global object).
  • Mistyping a variable name will create a new global variable. This will throw an error in strict mode. It will be impossible to accidentally create a global variable.
Strict mode is declared by adding "use strict". Strict mode can be used in two ways
  • Global scope for the entire script
  • Applied to individual functions.

Strict mode doesn’t work in block statements enclosed with {} braces.
The "use strict" directive is only recognized at the beginning of a script or a function.


Strict Mode Global Scope

Strict mode applied to the entire script. Declare strict mode at the beginning of a script.

JS JavaScript - Strict Mode Global Scope

// Declaring strict mode on top of other statements
'use strict';
var x = "using strict global mode script!";

Learn more about JavaScript Scope

Strict Mode Function Scope

Strict mode applied to individual functions. Declare strict mode at the beginning of the function.

JS JavaScript - Strict Mode Function Scope

function strict() {
  // Declaring strict mode in function scope
  'use strict';
 
  // variable must be declared before used
  var sum;
  sum1 = CalcalateThis(2,3);
  alert("Strict mode - 2+3: " + sum1);
 
  // variable is declared when it is used
  var sum2 = CalcalateThis(4,5);
  alert("Strict mode - 4+5: " + sum2);
}
 
function notStrict() {
  // variable can be used even though it`s not declared
  newSum = CalcalateThis(2,3);
  alert("Not-Strict mode - 2+3: " + newSum);
}

Learn more about JavaScript Keyword This

Strict Mode Exception

Here are some examples of syntax that will cause an error.


"use strict";
 
// An error will occure because x is not declared
x = "This will cause an error";
 
function myFunction() {
    // An error will occure because y is not declared
    y = "This will cause an error";;
} 

Strict Mode Exception

Here are some more examples of syntax that will cause an error.


// This will NOT cause an error because strict mode is not implemented
x = "This will NOT cause an error";
 
myFunction();
 
function myFunction() {
    "use strict";
 
    // An error will occure because y is not declared
    y = "This will cause an error";
}


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JavaScript is one of the 3 core language technologies of the World Wide Web that all web developers must learn:

1.      HTML to define the content of web pages.

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