JavaScript Strings

JavaScript strings are used for storing and manipulating text.
A string can be any text inside double or single quotes.

Strings can contain letters, numbers, symbols, punctuation, and even emoji.

A JavaScript string stores a series of characters like "Jonny Cash" or 'This is it'.

String indexes are zero-based: The first character is in position 0, the second in position 1 and so on.

Enclosing quotation marks

Strings are contained within a pair of either single quotation marks as 'a text' or double quotation marks as "a text".

Do you want to use quotation marks inside a string? Then use the opposite quotation marks inside and outside. Strings containing single quotes need to use double quotes and strings containing double quotes need to use single quotes.

JS JavaScript - Enclosing quotation marks

// String containing a single quotes
"It's eight o'clock.";
// String containing double quotes
'Remember to say "please" and "thank you."';

Is is also possible to use a backslash \ to escape the quotation marks. This lets JavaScript know in advance that you want to use a special character.

// Escaping special characters with \
'It\'s eight o\'clock.';
"Remember to say \"please\" and \"thank you.\"";

Long literal strings

Strings can sometimes be very long and go on endlessly. You should then break the string into multiple lines without affecting the actual string content.

Use the + operator to append multiple strings.

JS JavaScript - Long literal strings

// A long string wrapped on multiple lines
var longString = "This is a very long string that I would like" +
"to wrap into multiple lines to make my code " +
"more readable.";

It is also possible to use the backslash character ("\") at the end of each line to indicate that the string will continue on the next line. Make sure there is no space or any other character after the backslash (except for a line break), or as an indent; otherwise it will not work.

// A long string wrapped on multiple lines
var longString = "This is a very long string that I would like \
to wrap into multiple lines to make my code \
more readable.";

String Properties and methods

Here are some of the most common String properties and methods.

Description Example Output
length Property that returns number of characters. "horse".length; 5
trim Trim method returns a copy of the string with beginning and ending whitespace characters removed. "   keep spaces in the middle    ".trim(); "keep spaces in the middle"
toLowerCase ToLowerCase method returns a copy of the string with its letters converted to lowercase. Numbers, symbols, and other characters are not affected. "High and Low ".toLowerCase(); "high and low"
toUpperCase ToUpperCase method returns a copy of the string with its letters converted to capitals. Numbers, symbols, and other characters are not affected. "High and Low".toUpperCase(); "HIGH AND LOW"


Learn more about JavaScript String Methods

Comparing strings

You can compare strings using the less-than and greater-than operators. You may also use the localeCompare() method inherited by String instances.

JS JavaScript - Comparing strings

<!DOCTYPE html><html lang="en" xmlns="">
  <title>Comparing strings</title>
<h1>Compare strings</h1>
<p>Press the button to compare 'a' and 'b'.</p><button onclick="testStringCompare()">Click me to test</button><script>
        function testStringCompare() 
            var a = 'a';
            var b = 'b';
            if (a < b ) { // true
              alert ( a + ' is less than ' + b );
            } else if (a > b) {
              alert(a + ' is greater than ' + b);
            } else {
              alert(a + ' and ' + b + ' are equal.');

Escape sequences

Escape sequences that are valid in JavaScript.






Form Feed


New Line


Carriage Return


Horizontal Tabulator


Vertical Tabulator




double quote


single quote


an octal Latin-1 character


unicode codepoint

\u{X} ... \u{XXXXXX}

unicode codepoint


the Latin-1 character

Learn more about JavaScript Assignment Learn more about JavaScript Comments

Check this out

JS JavaScript: Var

Var is a keyword that is used to declare a variable.

But, you should NOT use var, use let when declaring a variable.

One of the most important things is that you should try to keep things simple!

JS JavaScript: Errors

There will be errors in the code. It is good practice to handle exceptions/errors.

Exceptions are a type of error that occurs during the execution of an application. Errors should be logged. Sometimes it is possible to recover a bug and proceed.
Other cases the user should get inform....

JS JavaScript: break

The break statement terminates a current loop or a switch statement.

The continue statement "jumps over" one iteration in the current loop.

JS JavaScript: Array Sort

The sort() method in JavaScript is sorting the elements in an array and will return the sorted array. The default sort order is according to string Unicode code points.


JavaScript is one of the 3 core language technologies of the World Wide Web that all web developers must learn:

1.      HTML to define the content of web pages.

2.      CSS to specify the layout of web pages.

3.      JavaScript to program the behavior of web pages.

JavaScript is a scripting or programming language that allows you to implement complex things on web pages. Every time a web page does more than just sit there and display static information for you to look at, displaying timely content updates, interactive maps, animated 2D/3D graphics, scrolling video jukeboxes, etc. − you can bet that JavaScript is probably involved.

The benefits of using JavaScript are:

1.      You can validate user input before sending the page off to the server. This saves server traffic, which means less load on your server.

2.      Immediate feedback to the visitors − They don't have to wait for a page reload to see if they have forgotten to enter something.

3.      Increased interactivity − You can create interfaces that react when the user hovers over them with a mouse or activates them via the keyboard.

4.      Richer interfaces − You can use JavaScript to include such items as drag-and-drop components and sliders to give a Rich Interface to your site visitors.


Need more Honney

NDC Conferences

The NDC Conferences (Norwegian Developers Conference) are one of the world`s largest independent software conferences for .NET & Agile development. The conference covers everything you need to know within software development. The conferences are held each year in many places such as Oslo, Copenhagen, London, Sydney and Minnesota.

Update Conference Prague

Update Conference Prague is the biggest developer conference in the Czech Republic. The conference is offering sessions delivered by the top experts from all around the world. Their goal is to inspire the attendees and enrich their knowledge.

Troy Hunt

Learn about Web Security from Troy Hunt. He is a really engaged speaker that frequently give talks on conferences around the world. Troy is a Microsoft MVP and you can even learn from him on some great courses on Pluralsight.

W3Schools is a great education Web Site for learning web technologies. On W3Schools you may find well organized basic to advanced tutorials and references.

Scott Hanselman

Learn about Web Technologies and new trends from Scott Hanselman. Scott Hanselman is an author of developer books and he is an engaged speaker that usually talks about the Microsoft stack. You may meet Scott on conferences around the world.

Developer Week

DeveloperWeek is one of the world’s largest developer conferences. Developer Week focus on new dev technologies, the conference have talks and workshops for newbies and experienced audience. You can attend on a Developer Week conference different places in Nothern America.


Honneybag blog

Learn JavaScript Debugging

Searching for bugs and fixing them is called code debugging. The bugs might be difficult to diagnose and therefore it is important to have a good approach to find and fix the bugs effectively. Bugs in the code might be syntax errors or logical errors. Sometimes nothing happens when the code contains bugs and there is few indications where to search. Modern web browser includes a powerful suite of developer tools. The tools do a range of things...

Explore JavaScript Arrays

Arrays are frequently used by developers. Programming languages can have slightly different implementation of arrays. An array is an object that can store a collection of items. You may say it`s a special variable that can have more than one value. The array holds many values under a single name, and you may access the values by referring to an index number. The easiest way to create....

Ultimate Guide to HTML Colors

It is essential to give the user a good user experience. There are many things you should focus on, one of them is how you use colors on your website. We don't have to struggle with black and white TVs anymore. Users expect more and more and we can apply colors to everything we want. Texts, borders, backgrounds, shadows – in HTML they all can have whatever color you decide....

Wanna be a sheep? Check out the most popular subjects
Wanna be a little different? Check out the less popular subjects